A UPS system is an alternative electric power source used for power backup to support critical operations. UPS providesprotection to its connected devices against power cuts, frequency variations, line noise, voltage transients etc.
UPS selection and design process includes many factors like
Determine a need. An UPS may be needed for a variety of purposes such as Medical Macines & operations, lighting, startup power, heating, production, fire protection, space conditioning, data processing, communication, life support, or signal circuits. It is important to determine the acceptable delay between loss of primary power and availability of UPS power, the length of time that emergency or backup power is required, and the criticality of the load that the UPS must bear. All of these factors play into the sizing of the UPS and the selection of the type of the UPS
Determine safety. It must be determined if the safety of the selected UPS is acceptable. The UPS may have safety issues such as hydrogen accumulation from batteries, or noise pollution from solid-state equipment or rotating equipment.
Determine maintainability. The selected UPS must be maintainable. Maintenance of the unit is important in assuring the unit’s availability. If the unit is not properly cared for, the unit will be more likely to fail. Therefore, it is necessary that the maintenance be performed as required. If the skills and resources required for the maintenance of the unit are not available, it may be necessary to select a unit requiring less maintenance.
Determine if affordable. The selected UPS must be affordable. While this is the most limiting factor in the selection process, cost cannot be identified without knowing the other parameters. The pricing of the unit consists of the equipment cost as well as the operating and maintenance costs.
UPS Installation & Testing
The UPS shall be installed with all necessary features. Features such as alarms, indicators, control devices, and protective devices are installed to assist in the safe operation of the unit. Power and control components such as meters, indicating lights, control switches, push buttons, and potentiometers are typically located in a nearby cabinet. Batteries are typically installed on battery racks. The design of the racks varies based on the available space and
number of batteries
The UPS shall be installed on a level surface with sufficient clearance to allow for ventilation and access to maintenance panels. Static UPSs require environments with a controlled atmosphere where the temperature, humidity, and dust levels are carefully maintained. The batteries of the UPS require ventilation of the room to prevent hydrogen buildup.
The UPS power distribution system shall be designed to provide short circuit protection, isolate branch faults, and isolate critical loads from sources of harmonics, surges, and spikes. This is achieved using panelboards, circuit breakers, and fuses. The UPS system is grounded to ensure the safety of the operating personnel. Shielding of the control cables shall be achieved by running power cables in bonded metal enclosures separately from the control cable’s enclosures.
Testing and startup shall be performed to ensure the component’s operation once energized. Acceptance testing should be performed on all equipment. Testing records on test forms should be kept for comparison to later routine maintenance tests. The possible failures of the equipment drawn out from the test results should be discussed and corrective action implemented. Test equipment used should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.
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